|N02 - Analgesics|
This group comprises general analgesics and antipyretics.
All salicylic acid derivatives except combinations with corticosteroids (M01B) or opioids (N02AJ) are classified in N02BA - Salicylic acid and derivatives, as it is difficult to differentiate between the use of salicylates in rheumatic conditions and other therapeutic uses of salicylates.
All plain ibuprofen preparations are classified in M01A, even if they are only intended for use as pain relief.
There are a number of combined preparations, which contain analgesics and psycholeptics. These are classified in N02, as pain relief must be regarded as the main indication. Analgesics used for specific indications are classified in the respective ATC groups. E.g.:
A03EA- Antispasmodic/psycholeptics/analgesic combinations
M01 - Antiinflammatory and antirheumatic products
M02A - Topical products for joint and muscular pain
M03 - Muscle relaxants
See comments to these groups.
Lidocaine indicated for postherpetic pain is classified in N01BB.
|N02A - Opioids|
This group comprises strong analgesics of the opiate type and analgesics with similar structure or action.
Sufentanil, which is also used as an epidural analgesic or in postoperative pain, is classified in N01AH.
Fentanyl in combination with bupivacaine used in e.g. postoperative pain is classified in N01AH51 - fentanyl, combinations.
Combinations with antispasmodics are classified in N02AG.
The DDDs in this group are based on the treatment of pain.
The DDD for oral morphine is higher than the parenteral DDD because of lower bioavailability.
|N02AJ - Opioids in Combination with Non-Opioid Analgesics|
Includes combinations with opioids and other non-opioid analgesics (e.g. paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid or NSAIDs). At each 5th level other active ingredients such as e.g. caffeine, vitamins and antihistamines are allowed.
Various combinations of codeine with other analgesics are included in N02AJ09 - codeine and other non-opioid analgesics. For example combinations containing three analgesic components (codeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen) are classified in N02AJ09.
Various combinations of tramadol with other analgesics are included in N02AJ15 - tramadol and other non-opioid analgesics. For example combinations containing tramadol and ibuprofen (or ketorolac or diclofenac) are classified in N02AJ15.
Combinations of codeine, non-opioid analgesics and psycholeptics are classified in N02AA79 - codeine, combinations with psycholeptics. Other analgesics may be included in the 70-series codes.
All plain and combination products containing dextropropoxyphen are classified in N02AC.
The DDDs are based on approved dose recommendations.
When establishing DDDs for combination products all analgesic components are taken into consideration.
The DDD, expressed in UD, should normally not exceed the approved dose recommendations for any of the components.
See list of DDDs for combination products, www.whocc.no.
|N02AJ13 - Tramadol and Paracetamol|